Check below 12 key moments to understand the impact of reform, published by BBC History Magazine by Diarmaid Macculloch, Church History Professor at the University of Oxford.
1 1517: Luther confronts the Pope
Martin Luther, a devotee Augustinian friar and a university professor in Wittenberg, Saxony, North Germany, launches an attack on the indulgences, which the Catholic Church requires the faithful to shorten the time In purgatory after death, before entering the sky. He describes a criticism in 95 theses to question the theology of salvation adopted by the Church.
For the surprise of Luther, his initiative arouses enthusiasm across Germany. Discovering a gift for popular communication – although I have not published practically nothing before – he begins to write a series of pamphlets and books explaining his ideas. Western Church hierarchy sees this as a threat to your authority. The two sides speak with OPOST purposesLuther on salvation, obedience authorities.
2 1519: Reform spreads through Switzerland
In Zurich, Switzerland, hundreds of miles south of Wittenberg, a prominent priest called Huldrych Zwingli begins to preach through the Bible. His message that God alone is in charge of salvation also challenges the official teaching of the Church in a wide front. He triggered a retirement in Zurich, then in many parts of Switzerland and southern Germany – a reform that is parallel to Luther, but not identical to it, and does not comply with Luther’s authority.
\” 3 1520: Roma condemns Luther’s disobedience
At this point, Luther and the Rome authorities are on a collision route. While he reinforces the biblical vision on salvation, echoing the writings of the apostle Paul and Augustine of Hippo, Catholics leaders are furious by Luther not to obey the orders to shut up.
The Pope emits a solemn pronouncement (a \u0026 #8216; Bula \u0026 # 8217;) condemning Luther and his disobedience. Luther destroys him in a public demonstration and writes three classic works establishing an alternative structure of Christian thought, centered on \u0026 # 8217; He states that faith is a gift from God through grace and that this is the only way to gain salvation. There is nothing that the Church can add to this, much less the imposition of indulgences.
4 1521: Luther remains steadfast in front of the emperor
Summoned to meet the Roman Emperor Sacro, Carlos V, in the German city of Worms, Luther did not want to retreat. \”I can not do anything else, this is my position,\” he said. The emperor honoredly supports a promise of safe-conduct to the Roman Assembly and then Luther part as a free man.
Despite challenge the Pope and Emperor, Luther receives the support of many local rulers in Germany. The electorate of Saxony, formed by supporters, plans to protectLuther of new attacks by means of a \”sequestration\” staged and, in seclusion in the electoral castle of Wartburg, Luther begins to translate the Bible into German. This will have a great influence on the way German is spoken. Music lover, Luther also begins to write hymns in German.
5 1525: Thousands of rebels are massacred
The agitation caused by Luther’s message resulted in rebellions by extremists largely from the Sacred Roman Empire – then begins the war of the peasants, in which the rebels are brutally crushed .
Luther, horrified with the extremist use of his message, supports the hard repression against the rebels. There is a popular disappointment with his posture, and he now relys on the ruling class to promote his reform version. The supporters of the rebellions lead their thoughts in more radical directions, rejecting the Christian consensus on the trinity or the narrow relationship between the government and church. They seekPrevious, more biblical answers.
His opponents, Catholics and Protestants, condemn them and often chase them, labeling them as Anabaptists \u0026 # 8217; (\u0026 # 8216; Rebatizers \u0026 # 8217;), since its proposal is that only adult believers are baptized, not children.
6 1530: Protestants fight between themselves
When the Roman Assembly meets in Augsburg, Luther’s political supporters (already nicknamed of \u0026 # 8220; Protestants) convinces Carlos V to consider two declarations of faith of the Reform: One of the Lutherans and another inspired by the Swiss Reformers. Carlos does not accept any of the two, but the Lutheran statement remains as Augsburg Confession \u0026 # 8217; and the spin-off between Lutherans and non-Lutheran Protestants (later known as Protestants \u0026 # 8217;) It becomes permanent.
Reformed Protestants and Successors of Huldrych Zwingli place much more emphasis than Luther in the sin of idolatry EDStretch the images in the churches – Luther quickly decides that this is a bad idea. They also have a different view over the Holy Supper. Reformed have a symbolic view of bread and Eucharistic wine, denying that these are transformed into the body and blood of Christ in a literal sense. Consequently, they reject the theology of the Eucharist as a sacrifice called \u0026 # 8216; Mass \u0026 # 8217; while Luther sustains much of the old ceremony of the Mass.
Luther and Zwingli are in Marburg in 1529 officialize your rupture. On the other hand, the two groups within Protestantism agree on two things: that the Pope is the enemy of God and that the clergy is not a privileged caste marked by celibacy; Therefore, as the laity, they could marry.
7 1536: Calvin reaches the reformers
a French religious exile, João Calvino, arrives in the city of Geneva, already experiencing chaotic reform, and becomes a preminen religious leaderYou in the Swiss city. Overcoming a lot of opposition, he establishes his own reform, receiving support from a large number of films exiled. Geneva becomes an important center in Reformed Protestantism alongside Zurich.
Calvin places a special emphasis on discipline and church government, and the results are admired throughout Europe, marked by disorder and public violence. Calvin’s colleagues also encourage a new way of making music, very different from Lutherans: it is based exclusively on Bible texts, especially the 150 Psalms of David. They are expressed in simple verses and melodies for all to sing.
With the change in the form of worshiping God, ps sung becomes a powerful symbol of the reformed Protestants, transcending local and cultural boundaries. [123 ]
8 1555: Carlos V negotiate peace with Lutherans
After nine years of war in Central Europe, Carlos V and the noble family Habsburg are FOto recognize the official existence of Lutheranism. Elsewhere, Habsburgs try to protect and revitalize Catholicism. This agreement called \u0026 # 8216; Paz de Augsburg \u0026 # 8217; It does not mention reformed Protestantism, although in the coming decades some regions of the empire have renovated rulers.
This silence creates instability and uncertainty in the religious policy of Central Europe. Around 1600, Scandinavia and most of the northern Germany become Lutherans, but the renovated churches were established in countries such as Scotland, England, Transylvania (Romania) and parts of Poland and Lithuania.
9 1558: The new Queen of England seeks the middle half
Elizabeth I succeeds the English throne and decides with Parliament in 1559 maintaining the religion agreement during its 45-year reign. Since the rupture of his father, Henry VIII, with papal obedience in 1533, the British Kingdom oscillated between Henry’s ambiguous attitude toward reform,The open support of his son Edward VI to the reform and reintroduction of Roman Catholicism by his daughter Maria.
Elizabeth is a cautious Protestant, but his clergy and counselors move with enthusiasm to continue the Reformed Protestant Trajectory of the Church Eduardo. There is not much that she can do about, besides prohibiting any new official promulgation of religious change. She insists on maintaining not only bishops, but cathedrals and ecclesial institutions in operation.
This leaves a double message for the theology of the Church of England: is Catholic or Protestant? The question has never been resolved.
The Church is united by a common English Bible (after nine decades of translations, in the King James version of 1611). From this English church grew the \u0026 # 8216; Anglicanism \u0026 # 8217; while the English Protestants who could not accept the 1662 agreement formed the free churches.
10 1563: Bishops release counter-reform
a Council of Bishops CRoman atógic gathered in Trento in northern Italy, is closed after a series of sessions initiated in 1545. The Council was able to restore self-confidence and the structure of the old Western Church after the coup of reform.
While groups arise as groups. In the religious transformation of southern Europe, who failed to find a place in the Protestant Reform, the promulgations of the Council feed the identity of the ‘contrast’, or Catholic reform, supported by the power of the monarchs – particularly in France, Poland and the Sacro Roman Empire .
Catholicism, with Portuguese and Spanish expansion in America, Africa and Asia, becomes the first world religion, based on military power against other religions where the Spanish and Portuguese authorities were established. [123 ]
11 1607: Protestants colonize North America
The first English colony to survive permanently in North America is established in Jamestown (in honor ofThe current king, Jaime Vi and I; Although the colony called Virginia, in honor of the Virgin Queen Elizabeth). The establishment of the colony announces the expansion of the English language protestantism of a small island to become a worldwide expression of the Christian faith.
Virginia is pleased to establish an official religion, which is a version of the Church of England . But to the north, a coast called \u0026 # 8220; New England \u0026 # 8221; It is founded by people deeply dissatisfied with what they consider the Papistons of the English Church.
12 1618-19: Europe Lives a destructive war
A synod of the Dutch Reformed Church meets in Dordrecht to define what the Church believes on the means of salvation, after a violent theological and political controversy resulted in victory of those who proclaim belief in divine predestination. Representatives of other renovated churches appear, including England, making this synod the closest toAn international meeting that fragmented renovated churches have already had.Not all reformed Protestants accept this and follow their own directions – a tendency in reformed protestantism.Europe are very small, but many Europeans are sick by religious violence and explore how the reason can be applied to religious belief less dogmatically.Your efforts shape a perspective that will soon be called \u0026 # 8220; Enlightenment \u0026 # 8221;.